If you have personal access to this content, log in with your username and password here:. The Francophone World and its Neighbours. Author: Christopher Kleinhenz , and Keith Busby. Your Access Options. Log In If you have personal access to this content, log in with your username and password here: Email or username: Password: Remember me.
Forgotten your password? However, most studies investigate only a small number of these characteristics, likely underestimating the overall contribution. In this paper, we use a set of 28 teacher-level predictors drawn from multiple research traditions to explain teacher-level variation in student outcomes. In addition, each individual predictor explains only a small, relatively unique portion of the total teacher-level variability. This first finding highlights the importance of choosing predictors and outcomes that are well aligned, and the second suggests that the phenomena underlying teacher effects is multidimensional.
In this paper I analyze a corpus of works, primarily verse, published during and in the aftermath of the French Wars of Religion — Unlike their predecessor Rabelais, who accorded a primary place to the body and all its functions in his grotesque satires, for these authors the body is always diseased and dying.
By studying the place of the body and discourses of disease in literary texts surrounding the Wars of Religion in conjunction with early modern theories about the physical body and the body politic, this paper will analyze the images of plague and disease so prevalent during this turbulent period and what they can tell us about contemporary understandings of the Wars of Religion.
Charlee Redman is a PhD student at the University of Maryland-College Park interested in early modern literature and culture and the intersections between literature and science. The purpose of this study is to investigate three aspects of construct validity for the Mathematical Quality of Instruction classroom observation instrument: 1 the dimensionality of scores, 2 the generalizability of these scores across districts, and 3 the predictive validity of these scores in terms of student achievement.
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Since the first meetings of the TLF in , infrastructure investment has been a topic of interest to the pension trustees. It also poses risks, including privatization of public jobs and assets. In , pension trustees have more questions than ever about infrastructure investment. This working document compiles some of the thinking from the past six years of trustee discussions at TLF convenings, and aims to briefly summarize the key issues and questions that have been raised.
Project MUSE - Introduction
The work of improving nuclear security is not done, though leaders are no longer meeting at the summit level. The threats of nuclear theft and terrorism remain very real. States, nuclear operating organizations, and institutions and initiatives supporting nuclear security must strive for continuous improvement in nuclear security.
The alternative is dangerous decline. Achieving genuinely effective implementation of existing recommendations and commitments in five key areas could dramatically strengthen nuclear security around the world. It seems the world is awash in sophisticated network intrusions. But if everything is sophisticated, nothing is. It examines the incentives for victims and observers to overstate the sophistication of other actors. Additionally, it offers a more rigorous framework for defining the term that takes into account technical and operational factors.
Representations of the French Revolution are today, as they were then, skewed either to the right or to the left. Rarely is discourse on the Revolution a balanced one. It ultimately offers a non-partisan vision of the world; one in which compassion is the ruling ideology. If the novel, as well as its author, are forgotten today, this was not always the case.
Volume one and two, serving as a sort of trial balloon, were published first. For some reason, they were not subject to censure and the sales were encouraging.
Critique de la Francophonie Haïtienne
The third and forth volume quickly followed. The novel ran to ten editions from to , not including the pirated runs. It was considered politically dangerous enough in to have the ninth edition confiscated by the police. And although the point of view appealed to one particular political faction, the royalists, it was, at its most basic level, a rousing good read for the growing reading public who eagerly seized up the numerous novels published by a burgeoning publishing industry.
As a gothic or frenetic-bildungsroman-sentimental-pseudo historical-adventure novel of persecuted innocence, it had something to please everyone. In addition, the horror of recent events is rendered manageable by its integration into the familiar literary registers and subgenres. Irma is an outrageous novel, mixing historical facts and fictional events, political analysis with wild speculation set in an exotic atmosphere that combines the engouement for the frenetic esthetic so popular at the end of the XVIII century with the familiarity of longstanding popularity of the oriental narrative.
However, drawing on tropes familiar to readers of popular fiction and adding the new tropes of the gothic or frenetic novel, Irma allows readers to vicariously relive traumatic events at a safe remove. By setting the novel in an oriental frame, a device popular for the preceding two centuries, powerful traumatic events and political figures are at once neutralized when set at a remove from the present.
The reader is able to read tale of persecuted innocence on multiple levels, one according to the clef, a fictionalized account of the imprisonment of a young Indian princess, her family and many political intrigues surrounding them, another as the story of the Royal French family and, again, read it simultaneously as an allegorical account of the French nation as a whole. It allows the reader the distance he or she may need to understand events at a private as well as public level—this proved to be a powerful combination and accounts for the novels enduring popularity.
The novel thrills and entertains according to its generic functions, but it informs on another level as it educates the reader with a well thought out political and historical analysis that is presented as such in the text. If you lifted the thin veil of Orientalism, Irma could be called an historical novel.
The narrative is split into contemporaneous events told by Irma and the historical perspective leading up to those events explained by her aunt, Selabius. The historical sequence is respected, giving the reader both sides of events, the private side as well as the public. Although clearly royalist, there is enough even- handling of the other side to satisfy a Jacobin reader; There are good guys and bad guys on both sides. Dark prison scenes and murderous guards alternate with kind ones and moments of generosity and friendship. It is made clear in the text that Irma has received her sentimental education from her father, but it is her aunt that teaches her the historical causes of the Revolution.
Her discourse is an explanatory one, giving justifications for certain decisions, which, in hindsight, were poor ones. He is presented as the incarnation of a roi-philosophe,. Irma receives an education in interpretation, in reading and deciphering ostensible and hidden meanings in a political and private context as her aunt takes her step-by-step through one hundred years of government.
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- Simons Katze gegen den Rest der Welt! (German Edition).
The narrative alternates from contemporaneous events to the historical synthesis and back again. Irma, like her real life model the Madame Royale, is eventually sent to her maternal relatives the King of Persia in the text in exchange for Revolutionary hostages. Although the narration moves the reader through the emotional as well as social chaos of the Revolution, the author takes great care to explain the origin of events, giving a context for the upheaval.
The author fosters a sense of emotional security through intellectual understanding by retelling of events experienced by contemporary readers or at the very least with which they were familiar. She places personal trauma in a larger national and public tragedy. By the end of the novel first 4 volumes at least the reader comes to an emotional understanding and a certain peace even if the times are still uncertain.
Un roman de romancier
An integral part of this education is the short inset narratives of people Irma comes across. Contrary to expectations, the normally rigid monophonic epistolary form bends its singular and aristocratic point of view to include multiple voices from different social and economic backgrounds. Everyone tells their story and they all have one from the highest nobles, to the servants that served them, to peasants in the field. From monarchists, to revolutionary partisans, to the politically neutral, women especially all tell horrendous stories of betrayal, separation, anxiety, and loss.
If the appearance of virtue is not to be trusted, easily counterfeited, and intentions illegible, the signs of pain are transparent.
https://sdirbuilesmite.tk By the end of the novel, the reader like Irma has come to understand that her country is in reality not divided, but united and equal, with pain and loss as the great leveler. A united community has been forged, but it is not a political one.
- Asian Theology on the Way: Christianity, culture and context (ISG).
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- The Middle Ages to (Part I) - The Cambridge History of French Thought;
- LE ROMAN DE LA ROSE?
It is located rather in the sentimental register, coming out of pain and loss and built on shared trauma. It is in this domain that everyone proves equal and one in which her own experiences has taught her to read the suffering heart of her fellow Indians. The particular found in the singular epistolary narrative voice expands to encompass the communal through shared experience. By the end of the novel, the reader like Irma has come to understand that her country is in reality not divided between revolutionaries and royalists, but united and equal at a deeper and more important level, with pain and loss as the great leveler.
Irma, for modern readers, allows the reader, on an emotional level, to experience the paranoia, fear, and confusion rampant at the time of its production and expose him or her to contemporary analysis of recent historical events. If a late XVIII and early XIX century reader looked to Irma for romance, rational explanations and to be moved both in horror and pity , this novel allows the modern reader to plunge into a world of hysteria, paranoia, violence and schizophrenic pairing of reason and sentiment of the French Revolution.
This one novel unites the emotional overload of a people traumatized by violent political events, both public and private, analyses and historicizes the causes of that violence, and, in attempting to come to terms with these events both personal and public, reflects the communal hysteria of in its frenetic aesthetic.
If there was ever a novel that communicates at a visceral level its zeitgeist it is certainly Irma. Voici quelques points que nous aimerions discuter au cours de cette table ronde. Elle doit encore relever de la persuasion. Cette captatio malevolentiae en est la preuve.